Journal cover Journal topic
Biogeosciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Biogeosciences, 14, 1739-1772, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-1739-2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
20 Apr 2017
Divergence of seafloor elevation and sea level rise in coral reef ecosystems
Kimberly K. Yates1, David G. Zawada1, Nathan A. Smiley1, and Ginger Tiling-Range2 1US Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Science Center, 600 Fourth St. South, St. Petersburg, Florida 33701, USA
2Cherokee Nation Technologies contracted to the US Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Science Center, 600 Fourth St. South, St. Petersburg, Florida 33701, USA
Abstract. Coral reefs serve as natural barriers that protect adjacent shorelines from coastal hazards such as storms, waves, and erosion. Projections indicate global degradation of coral reefs due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change will cause a transition to net erosion by mid-century. Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the combined effect of all of the processes affecting seafloor accretion and erosion by measuring changes in seafloor elevation and volume for five coral reef ecosystems in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Caribbean over the last several decades. Regional-scale mean elevation and volume losses were observed at all five study sites and in 77 % of the 60 individual habitats that we examined across all study sites. Mean seafloor elevation losses for whole coral reef ecosystems in our study ranged from −0.09 to −0.8 m, corresponding to net volume losses ranging from 3.4  ×  106 to 80.5  ×  106 m3 for all study sites. Erosion of both coral-dominated substrate and non-coral substrate suggests that the current rate of carbonate production is no longer sufficient to support net accretion of coral reefs or adjacent habitats. We show that regional-scale loss of seafloor elevation and volume has accelerated the rate of relative sea level rise in these regions. Current water depths have increased to levels not predicted until near the year 2100, placing these ecosystems and nearby communities at elevated and accelerating risk to coastal hazards. Our results set a new baseline for projecting future impacts to coastal communities resulting from degradation of coral reef systems and associated losses of natural and socioeconomic resources.

Citation: Yates, K. K., Zawada, D. G., Smiley, N. A., and Tiling-Range, G.: Divergence of seafloor elevation and sea level rise in coral reef ecosystems, Biogeosciences, 14, 1739-1772, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-1739-2017, 2017.
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We report regional-scale erosion of coral reef ecosystems in the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Pacific oceans determined by measuring changes in seafloor elevation. The magnitude of seafloor elevation loss has increased local sea level rise, causing water depths not predicted until near 2100, placing coastal communities at elevated and accelerating risk from hazards such as waves, storms, and tsunamis. Our results have broad implications for coastal resource and safety management.
We report regional-scale erosion of coral reef ecosystems in the Atlantic, Caribbean, and...
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