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Biogeosciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 13, issue 21
Biogeosciences, 13, 5895-5916, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-5895-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Special issue: OzFlux: a network for the study of ecosystem carbon and water...

Biogeosciences, 13, 5895-5916, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-5895-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 31 Oct 2016

Research article | 31 Oct 2016

An introduction to the Australian and New Zealand flux tower network – OzFlux

Jason Beringer1, Lindsay B. Hutley2, Ian McHugh3, Stefan K. Arndt4, David Campbell5, Helen A. Cleugh6, James Cleverly7, Víctor Resco de Dios8, Derek Eamus7, Bradley Evans9,10, Cacilia Ewenz11, Peter Grace12, Anne Griebel4, Vanessa Haverd6, Nina Hinko-Najera4, Alfredo Huete13, Peter Isaac6, Kasturi Kanniah14,25, Ray Leuning6,†, Michael J. Liddell15, Craig Macfarlane16, Wayne Meyer17, Caitlin Moore3, Elise Pendall18, Alison Phillips19, Rebecca L. Phillips20, Suzanne M. Prober16, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe13, Susanna Rutledge6, Ivan Schroder21, Richard Silberstein22, Patricia Southall22, Mei Sun Yee23, Nigel J. Tapper3, Eva van Gorsel6, Camilla Vote24, Jeff Walker23, and Tim Wardlaw19 Jason Beringer et al.
  • 1School of Earth and Environment (SEE), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, 6009, Australia
  • 2School of Environment, Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University, NT, 0909 Darwin, Australia
  • 3School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, Clayton, 3800, Australia
  • 4School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Richmond, 3121, VIC, Australia
  • 5School of Science, University of Waikato, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
  • 6CSIRO Oceans & Atmosphere Flagship, Yarralumla, ACT, 2600, Australia
  • 7School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW, 2007, Australia
  • 8Producció Vegetal i Ciència Forestal, Universitat de Lleida, 25198, Lleida, Spain
  • 9School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia
  • 10Ecosystem Modelling and Scaling Infrastructure, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network, The University of Sydney, NSW, Sydney, 2006
  • 11Airborne Research Australia, Flinders University, Salisbury South, SA, 5106, Australia
  • 12Institute for Future Environments and Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, 4000, Australia
  • 13Remote Sensing Research Group, Plant Functional Biology and Climate Change Cluster (C3), University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW, 2007, Australia
  • 14Faculty of Geoinformation and Real Estate, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor, 81310, Malaysia
  • 15Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, 4878, Australia
  • 16CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag 5, Floreat 6913, Western Australia
  • 17Environment Institute, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005, Australia
  • 18Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, 2751, Australia
  • 19Forestry Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 7000, Australia
  • 20Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand
  • 21International CCS & CO2CRC, Resources Division, Geoscience Australia, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia
  • 22Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, School of Natural Sciences, Joondalup, WA, 6027, Australia
  • 23Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, 3800, Australia
  • 24Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia
  • 25Centre for Environmental Sustainability and Water Security, Research Institute for Sustainable Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia
  • deceased

Abstract. OzFlux is the regional Australian and New Zealand flux tower network that aims to provide a continental-scale national research facility to monitor and assess trends, and improve predictions, of Australia's terrestrial biosphere and climate. This paper describes the evolution, design, and current status of OzFlux as well as provides an overview of data processing. We analyse measurements from all sites within the Australian portion of the OzFlux network and two sites from New Zealand. The response of the Australian biomes to climate was largely consistent with global studies except that Australian systems had a lower ecosystem water-use efficiency. Australian semi-arid/arid ecosystems are important because of their huge extent (70%) and they have evolved with common moisture limitations. We also found that Australian ecosystems had a similar radiation-use efficiency per unit leaf area compared to global values that indicates a convergence toward a similar biochemical efficiency. The two New Zealand sites represented extremes in productivity for a moist temperate climate zone, with the grazed dairy farm site having the highest GPP of any OzFlux site (2620gCm−2yr−1) and the natural raised peat bog site having a very low GPP (820gCm−2yr−1). The paper discusses the utility of the flux data and the synergies between flux, remote sensing, and modelling. Lastly, the paper looks ahead at the future direction of the network and concludes that there has been a substantial contribution by OzFlux, and considerable opportunities remain to further advance our understanding of ecosystem response to disturbances, including drought, fire, land-use and land-cover change, land management, and climate change, which are relevant both nationally and internationally. It is suggested that a synergistic approach is required to address all of the spatial, ecological, human, and cultural challenges of managing the delicately balanced ecosystems in Australasia.

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OzFlux is the regional Australian and New Zealand flux tower network that aims to provide a continental-scale national facility to monitor and assess trends, and improve predictions, of Australia’s terrestrial biosphere and climate. We describe the evolution, design, and status as well as an overview of data processing. We suggest that a synergistic approach is required to address all of the spatial, ecological, human, and cultural challenges of managing Australian ecosystems.
OzFlux is the regional Australian and New Zealand flux tower network that aims to provide a...
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