Biogeosciences, 13, 5895-5916, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-5895-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
31 Oct 2016
An introduction to the Australian and New Zealand flux tower network – OzFlux
Jason Beringer1, Lindsay B. Hutley2, Ian McHugh3, Stefan K. Arndt4, David Campbell5, Helen A. Cleugh6, James Cleverly7, Víctor Resco de Dios8, Derek Eamus7, Bradley Evans9,10, Cacilia Ewenz11, Peter Grace12, Anne Griebel4, Vanessa Haverd6, Nina Hinko-Najera4, Alfredo Huete13, Peter Isaac6, Kasturi Kanniah14,25, Ray Leuning6,†, Michael J. Liddell15, Craig Macfarlane16, Wayne Meyer17, Caitlin Moore3, Elise Pendall18, Alison Phillips19, Rebecca L. Phillips20, Suzanne M. Prober16, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe13, Susanna Rutledge6, Ivan Schroder21, Richard Silberstein22, Patricia Southall22, Mei Sun Yee23, Nigel J. Tapper3, Eva van Gorsel6, Camilla Vote24, Jeff Walker23, and Tim Wardlaw19 1School of Earth and Environment (SEE), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, 6009, Australia
2School of Environment, Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University, NT, 0909 Darwin, Australia
3School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, Clayton, 3800, Australia
4School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Richmond, 3121, VIC, Australia
5School of Science, University of Waikato, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
6CSIRO Oceans & Atmosphere Flagship, Yarralumla, ACT, 2600, Australia
7School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW, 2007, Australia
8Producció Vegetal i Ciència Forestal, Universitat de Lleida, 25198, Lleida, Spain
9School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia
10Ecosystem Modelling and Scaling Infrastructure, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network, The University of Sydney, NSW, Sydney, 2006
11Airborne Research Australia, Flinders University, Salisbury South, SA, 5106, Australia
12Institute for Future Environments and Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, 4000, Australia
13Remote Sensing Research Group, Plant Functional Biology and Climate Change Cluster (C3), University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW, 2007, Australia
14Faculty of Geoinformation and Real Estate, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor, 81310, Malaysia
15Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, 4878, Australia
16CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag 5, Floreat 6913, Western Australia
17Environment Institute, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005, Australia
18Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, 2751, Australia
19Forestry Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 7000, Australia
20Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand
21International CCS & CO2CRC, Resources Division, Geoscience Australia, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia
22Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, School of Natural Sciences, Joondalup, WA, 6027, Australia
23Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, 3800, Australia
24Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia
25Centre for Environmental Sustainability and Water Security, Research Institute for Sustainable Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia
deceased
Abstract. OzFlux is the regional Australian and New Zealand flux tower network that aims to provide a continental-scale national research facility to monitor and assess trends, and improve predictions, of Australia's terrestrial biosphere and climate. This paper describes the evolution, design, and current status of OzFlux as well as provides an overview of data processing. We analyse measurements from all sites within the Australian portion of the OzFlux network and two sites from New Zealand. The response of the Australian biomes to climate was largely consistent with global studies except that Australian systems had a lower ecosystem water-use efficiency. Australian semi-arid/arid ecosystems are important because of their huge extent (70 %) and they have evolved with common moisture limitations. We also found that Australian ecosystems had a similar radiation-use efficiency per unit leaf area compared to global values that indicates a convergence toward a similar biochemical efficiency. The two New Zealand sites represented extremes in productivity for a moist temperate climate zone, with the grazed dairy farm site having the highest GPP of any OzFlux site (2620 gC m−2 yr−1) and the natural raised peat bog site having a very low GPP (820 gC m−2 yr−1). The paper discusses the utility of the flux data and the synergies between flux, remote sensing, and modelling. Lastly, the paper looks ahead at the future direction of the network and concludes that there has been a substantial contribution by OzFlux, and considerable opportunities remain to further advance our understanding of ecosystem response to disturbances, including drought, fire, land-use and land-cover change, land management, and climate change, which are relevant both nationally and internationally. It is suggested that a synergistic approach is required to address all of the spatial, ecological, human, and cultural challenges of managing the delicately balanced ecosystems in Australasia.

Citation: Beringer, J., Hutley, L. B., McHugh, I., Arndt, S. K., Campbell, D., Cleugh, H. A., Cleverly, J., Resco de Dios, V., Eamus, D., Evans, B., Ewenz, C., Grace, P., Griebel, A., Haverd, V., Hinko-Najera, N., Huete, A., Isaac, P., Kanniah, K., Leuning, R., Liddell, M. J., Macfarlane, C., Meyer, W., Moore, C., Pendall, E., Phillips, A., Phillips, R. L., Prober, S. M., Restrepo-Coupe, N., Rutledge, S., Schroder, I., Silberstein, R., Southall, P., Yee, M. S., Tapper, N. J., van Gorsel, E., Vote, C., Walker, J., and Wardlaw, T.: An introduction to the Australian and New Zealand flux tower network – OzFlux, Biogeosciences, 13, 5895-5916, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-5895-2016, 2016.
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OzFlux is the regional Australian and New Zealand flux tower network that aims to provide a continental-scale national facility to monitor and assess trends, and improve predictions, of Australia’s terrestrial biosphere and climate. We describe the evolution, design, and status as well as an overview of data processing. We suggest that a synergistic approach is required to address all of the spatial, ecological, human, and cultural challenges of managing Australian ecosystems.
OzFlux is the regional Australian and New Zealand flux tower network that aims to provide a...
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