Quantifying the biological impact of surface ocean light attenuation by colored detrital matter in an ESM using a new optical parameterization
Summary: Light absorption by colored detrital material (CDM) was included in a fully coupled Earth system model. Chlorophyll and biomass increased near the surface but decreased at greater depths when CDM was included. Concurrently, total biomass decreased leaving more nutrients in the water. Regional changes were analyzed by comparing the competing factors of diminished light availability and increased nutrient availability on phytoplankton growth.
Biogeosciences, 12, 5119-5132, doi:10.5194/bg-12-5119-2015, 2015
Downward particle flux and carbon export in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean; the role of zooplankton
Summary: POC fluxes obtained in the Eastern Beaufort Sea in August 2009 from drifting sediment traps were low (1-15 mg C m-2d-1), compared to long-term data which show higher but variable fluxes (10-40 mg C m-2d-1). Composition of sinking particles, especially faecal pellets, highlighted the role of the zooplankton community and its trophic structure in the transition of carbon from the productive surface zone to the deep ocean. Carbon flux at this season results from a heterotrophic driven ecosystem.
Biogeosciences, 12, 5103-5117, doi:10.5194/bg-12-5103-2015, 2015
Response of respiration and nutrient availability to drying and rewetting in soil from a semi-arid woodland depends on vegetation patch and a recent wildfire
Biogeosciences, 12, 5093-5101, doi:10.5194/bg-12-5093-2015, 2015
Effects of fluctuating hypoxia on benthic oxygen consumption in the Black Sea (Crimean shelf)
Biogeosciences, 12, 5075-5092, doi:10.5194/bg-12-5075-2015, 2015
Environmental drivers of drought deciduous phenology in the Community Land Model
Summary: We compared monthly leaf area index (LAI) estimates from the Community Land Model (CLM) in stress/drought deciduous regions of the world to a satellite-derived estimate of LAI. This comparison revealed an issue in the CLM in which leaves begin to grow during the dry season due to unrealistic soil water movement. We introduced a rainfall trigger to the stress deciduous algorithm to address this issue, then showed the impacts of this change on the fire cycle and stored carbon.
Biogeosciences, 12, 5061-5074, doi:10.5194/bg-12-5061-2015, 2015
The influence of C3 and C4 vegetation on soil organic matter dynamics in contrasting semi-natural tropical ecosystems
Summary: We demonstrate and explain differential patterns in SOM dynamics in C3/C4 mixed ecosystems at various spatial scales across contrasting climate and soils. This study shows that the interdependence between biotic and abiotic factors ultimately determines whether SOM dynamics of C3- and C4-derived vegetation are at variance in ecosystems where both vegetation types coexist. The results also highlight the far-reaching implications that vegetation thickening may have for the stability of deep SOM.
Biogeosciences, 12, 5041-5059, doi:10.5194/bg-12-5041-2015, 2015
On the vertical distribution of the chlorophyll a concentration in the Mediterranean Sea: a basin-scale and seasonal approach
Summary: The spatiotemporal variability in the vertical distribution of the chlorophyll concentration in the Mediterranean Sea is investigated. Results are based on a large database of fluorescence profiles intercalibrated from ocean color satellite data. They indicate that two types of chlorophyll seasonality coexist in the Mediterranean Sea. The shape of the chlorophyll profile is very dynamic during winter, and the deep chlorophyll maximum is a dominant feature of Mediterranean chlorophyll profile.
Biogeosciences, 12, 5021-5039, doi:10.5194/bg-12-5021-2015, 2015
Living (Rose-Bengal-stained) benthic foraminiferal faunas along a strong bottom-water oxygen gradient on the Indian margin (Arabian Sea)
Biogeosciences, 12, 5005-5019, doi:10.5194/bg-12-5005-2015, 2015
Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir
Summary: There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the organic fraction and ignored the inorganic carbon pool. This study offers the first global assessment of PIC stocks and accumulation rates in seagrass sediments, identifying these ecosystems as important contributors to carbonate dynamics in coastal areas.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4993-5003, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4993-2015, 2015
Assessing the potential of amino acid 13C patterns as a carbon source tracer in marine sediments: effects of algal growth conditions and sedimentary diagenesis
Summary: A tiny fraction of marine algae escapes decomposition and is buried in sediments. Since tools are needed to track the fate of algal organic carbon, we tested whether naturally occurring isotope variability among amino acids from algae and bacteria can be used as source diagnostic fingerprints. We found that isotope fingerprints track algal amino acid sources with high fidelity across different growth conditions, and that the fingerprints can be used to quantify bacterial amino acids in sediment.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4979-4992, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4979-2015, 2015
Factors influencing CO2 and CH4 emissions from coastal wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China
Summary: Coastal wetlands vegetated by common reed and rice paddies emit significant amounts of methane to the atmosphere whereas sea-blite marshes are net sinks for atmospheric methane. The main controlling factors for the methane emissions are water table, temperature, soil organic carbon and salinity. The methane emissions from coastal wetlands can be reduced by creating fluctuating water tables, including water tables below the soil surface, as well as by occasional flooding by high-salinity water.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4965-4977, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4965-2015, 2015
Biogeochemistry of a large and deep tropical lake (Lake Kivu, East Africa: insights from a stable isotope study covering an annual cycle
Biogeosciences, 12, 4953-4963, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4953-2015, 2015
Reconsidering the role of carbonate ion concentration in calcification by marine organisms
Summary: Calcification by marine organisms reacts to changing seawater carbonate chemistry, but it is unclear which components of the carbonate system drive the observed response. This study uncovers proportionalities between different carbonate chemistry parameters. These enable us to understand why calcification often correlates well with carbonate ion concentration, and they imply that net CaCO3 formation in high latitudes is not more vulnerable to ocean acidification than formation in low latitudes.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4939-4951, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4939-2015, 2015
Fundamental molecules of life are pigments which arose and co-evolved as a response to the thermodynamic imperative of dissipating the prevailing solar spectrum
Summary: We show that the fundamental molecules of life (those common to all three domains of life: Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota), including nucleotides, amino acids, enzyme cofactors, and porphyrin agglomerates, absorb light strongly from 230 to 280nm (in the UV-C) and have chemical affinity to RNA and DNA. This supports the "thermodynamic dissipation theory for the origin of life", which suggests that life arose and evolved as a response to dissipating the prevailing Archaean UV-C sunlight into heat.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4913-4937, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4913-2015, 2015
Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a subarctic fjord
Summary: The Arctic Ocean is considered the most vulnerable ecosystem to ocean acidification (OA), but very little information is available on natural variability of pH in the Arctic coastal zone. We report pH variability at various scales in a Greenland fjord. Variability ranged up to 0.2-0.3 pH units horizontally and vertically in the fjord, between seasons and on diel basis in kelp forests and was extreme in tidal pools. Overall, primary producers played a fundamental role in producing mosaics of pH.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4895-4911, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4895-2015, 2015
Are recent changes in sediment manganese sequestration in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea linked to the expansion of hypoxia?
Biogeosciences, 12, 4875-4894, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4875-2015, 2015
Soil carbon and nitrogen erosion in forested catchments: implications for erosion-induced terrestrial carbon sequestration
Summary: In the southern parts of the Sierra Nevada in California, we investigated erosion of carbon and nitrogen from low-order catchments. We found that eroded sediments were OM rich, with a potential for significant gaseous and dissolved loss of OM during transport or after depositional in downslope or downstream depositional landform positions.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4861-4874, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4861-2015, 2015
Multi-molecular tracers of terrestrial carbon transfer across the pan-Arctic: comparison of hydrolyzable components with plant wax lipids and lignin phenols
Summary: Currently very few studies have examined the distribution and fate of hydrolyzable organic carbon (OC) in Arctic sediments, whose fate remains unclear in the context of climate change. Our study focuses on the source, distribution and fate of hydrolyzable OC as compared with plant wax lipids and lignin phenols in the sedimentary particles of nine Arctic and sub-Arctic rivers. This multi-molecular approach allows for a comprehensive investigation of terrestrial OC transfer via Arctic rivers.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4841-4860, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4841-2015, 2015
Ground cover rice production systems increase soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at regional scale
Summary: We demonstrate for the first time that a ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) significantly increased soil organic C and total N stocks at spatially representative paired sites under varying edaphic conditions. Our results suggest that GCRPS is a stable and sustainable technique that maintains key soil functions, while increasing rice yield and expanding the cultivation into regions where it has been hampered by low seasonal temperatures and/or a lack of irrigation water.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4831-4840, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4831-2015, 2015
Preface: Climate extremes and biogeochemical cycles in the terrestrial biosphere: impacts and feedbacks across scales
Biogeosciences, 12, 4827-4830, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4827-2015, 2015
Mitigation of agricultural emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level
Summary: Emission from agriculture-driven deforestation can be mitigated by reducing the expansion of agriculture into forests through intensification and utilizing non-forested land for agriculture. Climate-smart agriculture can reduce emissions from existing agricultural land. Tropical countries which are priorities for action can be identified by assessing the mitigation potential of these interventions, by assessing capacity for implementation and the risks associated with these approaches.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4809-4825, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4809-2015, 2015
Late Pleistocene glacial–interglacial shell-size–isotope variability in planktonic foraminifera as a function of local hydrography
Summary: Iron biogeochemical budgets during the natural ocean fertilisation experiment KEOPS-2 showed that complex circulation and transport pathways were responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply, with vertical supply dominant on the plateau and lateral supply dominant in the plume. The exchange of iron between dissolved, biogenic and lithogenic pools was highly dynamic, resulting in a decoupling of iron supply and carbon export and controlling the efficiency of fertilisation.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4781-4807, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4781-2015, 2015
Changes in soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus due to land-use changes in Brazil
Biogeosciences, 12, 4765-4780, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4765-2015, 2015
Nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific
Summary: We found that nitrogen fixation can proceed at high rates, depending on the season, in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific. nifH sequences were omnipresent and recovered throughout the year. UCYN-A was a major diazotroph during summer, whereas Trichodesmium was abundant during fall, despite low temperatures. The Cluster III diazotrophs, putative anaerobic bacteria, were found at the surface throughout the year.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4751-4764, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4751-2015, 2015
Simultaneous high C fixation and high C emissions in Sphagnum mires
Summary: While pristine, growing peatlands are often considered to be net sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2), fluxes vary considerably and these systems can be net sinks or sources of CO2. To explain part of this huge variation, here we present a phenomenon of peat moss (Sphagnum)-driven CO2 production. Due to the acid excreted by Sphagnum, bicarbonate in the surface water is transformed into CO2. Thus, while these systems have high CO2 fixation rates due to growing Sphagnum, they show a net emission of CO2.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4739-4749, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4739-2015, 2015
Intact polar lipids of Thaumarchaeota and anammox bacteria as indicators of N cycling in the eastern tropical North Pacific oxygen-deficient zone
Summary: The distribution of Thaumarchaeota and anammox bacteria in the water column of the eastern tropical North Pacific (ETNP) oxygen-deficient zone (ODZ) was investigated by collecting suspended particulate matter (SPM) and analyzing it for the content of specific intact polar lipids (IPLs) produced by the two microbial groups. We found a clear niche segregation in the distribution of the two groups in the coastal waters of the ETNP but a partial overlap of their niches in the open-water setting.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4725-4737, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4725-2015, 2015
N2O fluxes from the littoral zone of a Chinese reservoir
Biogeosciences, 12, 4711-4723, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4711-2015, 2015
Probing the past 30-year phenology trend of US deciduous forests
Summary: We performed model inter-comparison and selected the best model capturing the spatial and temporal variations of observations to predict trends of forest phenology over the past 3 decades. Our results show that phenological trends, which are dominantly driven by temperature changes, are not uniform over the contiguous USA, with a significant spring advance in the east, an autumn delay in the northeast and west, but no evidence of change elsewhere.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4693-4709, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4693-2015, 2015
Covariation of metabolic rates and cell size in coccolithophores
Summary: Metabolic rates and cell size in coccolithophore algae covary consistently in a large number of separate culture experiments as temperature, irradiance, nutrient and pCO2 conditions change. These changes are comparable to the changes in cell size observed in the natural environment, both in the modern ocean and in marine sediments. Changes in coccolithophore cell size in the field will help in understanding how this key phytoplankton species reacts to climate change.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4665-4692, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4665-2015, 2015
Hydrologic controls on DOC, As and Pb export from a polluted peatland – the importance of heavy rain events, antecedent moisture conditions and hydrological connectivity
Summary: This study combines a 1-year monitoring of precipitation, ombrotrophic peatland water level and pore water concentration changes with bog discharge and DOC, iron, As and Pb stream concentrations. Exports of As and Pb are dependent on not only the amount of precipitation and discharge but also the frequency and depth of water table fluctuations by connection of additional DOC, As and Pb pools in the acrotelm during water table rise, which is most pronounced after drought.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4651-4664, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4651-2015, 2015
Vertical partitioning and controlling factors of gradient-based soil carbon dioxide fluxes in two contrasted soil profiles along a loamy hillslope
Summary: In this study, we highlight the role of soil physical conditions and gas transfer mechanisms and dynamics in the decomposition and storage of soil organic carbon in subsoil layers. To illustrate it, we measured the time series of soil temperature, moisture and CO2 concentration and calculated CO2 fluxes along 1 m depth soil profiles during 6 months throughout two contrasted soil profiles along a hillslope in the central loess belt of Belgium.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4637-4649, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4637-2015, 2015
Deriving seasonal dynamics in ecosystem properties of semi-arid savanna grasslands from in situ-based hyperspectral reflectance
Summary: Relationships between ecosystem properties of semi-arid savanna and reflected solar radiance between 35 and 1800nm were investigated. Normalised combinations of reflectance for the near infrared, shortwave infrared, and 600 to 700nm were strongly affected by solar and viewing angle effects. Ecosystem properties of savannas were strongly correlated with reflectance at 350-1800nm, and normalised combinations of reflectance were strong predictors of the savanna ecosystem properties.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4621-4635, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4621-2015, 2015
Mineralization of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on the growth and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)
Summary: P release capacity of soil amended with RP varied between 6.0–11.5 mg kg-1, while the soluble P fertilizers, i.e., SSP and DAP, displayed a maximum of 73 and 68 mg P kg-1 at the start of the experiment (day 0). However, the P release tendency from SSP and DAP declined during incubation and at the end 82 and 79% of P initially present had been lost from the mineral pool. Integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in ½RP+½PM+PSB treatment stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25mg P kg-1.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4607-4619, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4607-2015, 2015
Geographic and seasonal variation of dissolved methane and aerobic methane oxidation in Alaskan lakes
Summary: We assessed the importance of aerobic CH4 oxidation in Alaskan lakes. We conducted field measurement of dissolved CH4 and O2 together with determination of the CH4 oxidation rate. We found that during winter, CH4 oxidation was limited by O2 concentration and during summer, by CH4 concentration. In addition to seasonal variations, the type of permafrost on which the lakes were located was identified as a key factor, indicating that landscape processes play an important role in lake CH4 cycling.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4595-4606, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4595-2015, 2015
Predicting landscape-scale CO2 flux at a pasture and rice paddy with long-term hyperspectral canopy reflectance measurements
Summary: This research used a long-term data set of near-surface canopy hyperspectral reflectance collected over 5 years to test the ability of these measurements to predict ecosystem carbon flux at a pasture and rice paddy in the California Delta, USA. We determined that each reflectance sampling event best captured the integrated prior week of carbon dioxide uptake, providing an important benchmark for understanding the lagged correlation between ecosystem carbon uptake and biochemical reflectance.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4577-4594, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4577-2015, 2015
Effects of temperature and organic pollution on nutrient cycling in marine sediments
Biogeosciences, 12, 4565-4575, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4565-2015, 2015
Mesozooplankton structure and functioning during the onset of the Kerguelen phytoplankton bloom during the KEOPS2 survey
Biogeosciences, 12, 4543-4563, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4543-2015, 2015
Storage and transformation of organic matter fractions in cryoturbated permafrost soils across the Siberian Arctic
Biogeosciences, 12, 4525-4542, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4525-2015, 2015
Reviews and Syntheses: optical sampling of the flux tower footprint
Summary: Optical sampling expands our understanding of the "breathing" of terrestrial ecosystems beyond what is possible by eddy covariance alone. The light-use efficiency (LUE) model provides a useful conceptual framework for integrating optical and CO2 flux measurements. Contrasting optical and flux behavior can reveal distinct optical types that provide key information on flux controls. Practical applications include assessment of ecosystem health, productivity, and biospheric carbon sequestration.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4509-4523, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4509-2015, 2015
The mechanisms of North Atlantic CO2 uptake in a large Earth System Model ensemble
Summary: The oceans currently take up around a quarter of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by human activity. While stored in the ocean, this CO2 is not causing global warming. Here we explore high latitude North Atlantic CO2 uptake across a set of climate model simulations, and find that the models show a peak in ocean CO2 uptake around the middle of the century after which time CO2 uptake begins to decline. We identify the causes of this long-term change and interannual variability in the models.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4497-4508, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4497-2015, 2015
Microbial assemblages on a cold-water coral mound at the SE Rockall Bank (NE Atlantic): interactions with hydrography and topography
Summary: The study characterizes the microbial community composition of a cold-water coral mound. Roche GS-FLX amplicon sequencing was carried out targeting Bacteria and Archaea. Water is well-mixed at 400m depth, less so at 5 mab, where composition of communities differed among summit, slope and off-mound. Near-bottom water differed from 5 mab, showing that waters in between frameworks represent a separate microbial habitat. Patterns of microbial distribution are coupled to topo- and hydrography.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4483-4496, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4483-2015, 2015
Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model
Summary: A numerical model is presented that explicitly includes spectral irradiance and optically important water constituents. The model captures 3-D biogeochemical, ecosystem, and optical observations, including surface reflectance analogous to ocean colour satellite observations. Sensitivity experiments demonstrate the relative importance of each of the water constituents, and the feedbacks between the light field, fitness of phytoplankton types, and the biogeochemistry of the ocean.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4447-4481, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4447-2015, 2015
Iron budgets for three distinct biogeochemical sites around the Kerguelen Archipelago (Southern Ocean) during the natural fertilisation study, KEOPS-2
Summary: Iron biogeochemical budgets during the natural ocean fertilisation experiment KEOPS-2 showed that complex circulation and transport pathways were responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply, with vertical supply dominant on the plateau and lateral supply dominant in the plume. The exchange of iron between dissolved, biogenic and lithogenic pools was highly dynamic, resulting in a decoupling of iron supply and carbon export and controlling the efficiency of fertilization.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4421-4445, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4421-2015, 2015
Does EO NDVI seasonal metrics capture variations in species composition and biomass due to grazing in semi-arid grassland savannas?
Summary: Limitations of satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for monitoring vegetation trends are investigated using observations from the Widou Thiengoly test site in northern Senegal. NDVI do not reflect the large differences found in biomass production and species composition between grazed and ungrazed plots. This is problematic for vegetation trend analysis in the context of drastically increasing numbers of Sahelian livestock in recent decades.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4407-4419, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4407-2015, 2015
Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across Northern Eurasia
Summary: We used outputs from nine models to better understand land-atmosphere CO2 exchanges across Northern Eurasia over the period 1960-1990. Model estimates were assessed against independent ground and satellite measurements. We find that the models show a weakening of the CO2 sink over time; the models tend to overestimate respiration, causing an underestimate in NEP; the model range in regional NEP is twice the multimodel mean. Residence time for soil carbon decreased, amid a gain in carbon storage.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4385-4405, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4385-2015, 2015
Convergent modelling of past soil organic carbon stocks but divergent projections
Summary: Soil carbon models are primary tools for projecting soil carbon balance under changing environment and management. This study shows that the carbon model produces divergent projections but accurate reproduction of measured soil carbon. This projection uncertainty is mainly due to an insufficient understanding of microbial processes and soil carbon composition. Climate conditions and land management in terms of carbon input also have significant effects.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4373-4383, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4373-2015, 2015
High methane emissions dominated annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting
Biogeosciences, 12, 4361-4371, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4361-2015, 2015
Dam tailwaters compound the effects of reservoirs on the longitudinal transport of organic carbon in an arid river
Summary: Dams impact river reaches. Upstream of dams, reservoirs transform terrestrial organic carbon and produce autochthonously derived organic carbon. In addition, tailwater reaches below dams may produce and export similar amounts of organic carbon to that stored behind dams. Our work demonstrates that not only do reservoirs need to be considered for their capacity to store and transform organic carbon but also the combined impact of their tailwater ecosystems should to be considered as well.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4345-4359, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4345-2015, 2015
Sources of dissolved organic matter during storm and inter-storm conditions in a lowland headwater catchment: constraints from high-frequency molecular data
Summary: The origin of stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a lowland headwater catchment was investigated using high-frequency sampling combined with chemical biomarker analysis. Inter-storm stream DOM corresponds to the flushing of soil DOM reservoirs, while storm stream DOM would also result from three additional mechanisms: biofilm destabilization, surface and sub-surface erosion.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4333-4343, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4333-2015, 2015
Thermokarst lake methanogenesis along a complete talik profile
Summary: The relative magnitude of thermokarst lake CH4 production in surface sediments vs. deeper-thawed permafrost is not well understood. We assessed CH4 production potentials from a lake sediment core and adjacent permafrost tunnel in interior Alaska. CH4 production was highest in the organic-rich surface lake sediments and recently thawed permafrost at the bottom of the talik, implying CH4 production is highly variable and that both modern and ancient OM are important to lake CH4 production.
Biogeosciences, 12, 4317-4331, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4317-2015, 2015