Through 2-year field experiment and meta-analysis, we found higher GHG (dominated by CH4
emission) and Nr (dominated by NH3
volatilization) was released from rice production in TLR, causing great environmental costs, due to direct straw incorporation and excessive N fertilization. Sensible N reduction reduced the GHG and Nr to some extent, but further mitigation is possible, especially for CH4
emission and NH3
volatilization, considering current incorporation pattern of straw and N fertilizer.