Mercury in coniferous and deciduous upland forests in northern New England, USA: implications of climate change
Summary: Our study investigated the effect of coniferous and deciduous vegetation on Hg cycling. We quantified Hg in aboveground vegetation and soil horizons at eight paired forest sites. Organic horizons at coniferous stands had greater Hg concentrations and pools than deciduous stands. Mineral soil Hg pools did not vary with vegetation type but varied with soil chemical properties. Estimated Hg litterfall flux was greater at deciduous stands. A shift in vegetation type may impact Hg accumulation.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6737-6749, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6737-2015, 2015
Technical note: Time lag correction of aquatic eddy covariance data measured in the presence of waves
Summary: Extracting benthic oxygen fluxes from eddy covariance data measured in the presence of wave motions requires careful consideration of the temporal alignment of the vertical velocity and the oxygen concentration. We show that substantial errors in flux estimates can arise if these two variables are not aligned correctly in time. Due to the limited time response of all oxygen sensors used today, such a misalignment cannot be entirely avoided. We finally propose a new correction for this problem.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6721-6735, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6721-2015, 2015
Landscape-scale changes in forest canopy structure across a partially logged tropical peat swamp
Summary: Canopy height and gaps of tropical peat swamp forests, measured by airborne laser scanning, were influenced by an interplay of environmental factors and selective logging. Structural recovery after logging depended strongly on peat depth and the landscape-scale relationship between forest height and canopy gap structure was lost in selectively logged forests. Results suggest slowest recovery on deep waterlogged and infertile peat, which is of relevance to management and conservation activities.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6707-6719, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6707-2015, 2015
Efficiency and adaptability of the benthic methane filter at Quepos Slide cold seeps, offshore of Costa Rica
Summary: We combined field, laboratory (sediment-flow-through system) and numerical modeling work to investigate cold seep sediments at Quespos Slide, offshore of Costa Rica. The results demonstrated the efficiency of the benthic methane filter and provided an estimate for its response time (ca. 170 days) to changes in fluid fluxes.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6687-6706, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6687-2015, 2015
Controls on dissolved organic matter (DOM) degradation in a headwater stream: the influence of photochemical and hydrological conditions in determining light-limitation or substrate-limitation of photo-degradation
Summary: This study investigates how sunlight, dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration and composition, and hydrology interact to control DOM degradation in headwater streams. In Imnavait Creek, a shallow, low-relief stream in the Arctic, DOM degradation by sunlight was limited by light under all conditions. Study results were used to synthesize controls on DOM degradation by sunlight for a river reach, expressed as a function of light attenuation and water residence times.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6669-6685, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6669-2015, 2015
Response of CO2 and H2O fluxes in a mountainous tropical rainforest in equatorial Indonesia to El Niño events
Summary: The time series analysis of the main meteorological parameters and components of CO2 and H2O fluxes showed a high evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary production (GPP) sensitivity of the tropical rainforest to meteorological variations caused by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Incoming solar radiation is the main governing factor that is responsible for ET and GPP variability. Changes in precipitation due to moderate ENSO events did not have any notable effect on ET and GPP.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6655-6667, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6655-2015, 2015
Integrated radar and lidar analysis reveals extensive loss of remaining intact forest on Sumatra 2007–2010
Summary: We integrated satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR), lidar, and forest plot data to calculate the amount and loss of above-ground biomass in remaining tall natural forests in a section of Sumatra, with quantified uncertainties. We estimate very high deforestation rates of 3.8% yr-1 and the loss of 11.3% remaining forest biomass in only 3 years. L-band SAR is valuable for penetrating cloud for deforestation analyses and for reliably estimating the carbon emissions from land use change.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6637-6653, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6637-2015, 2015
Water limitations on forest carbon cycling and conifer traits along a steep climatic gradient in the Cascade Mountains, Oregon
Summary: We investigated the role of water availability in shaping forest carbon cycling and conifer morphological traits in the Cascade Mountains, Oregon, a region that is expected to become warmer and drier in the coming century. Forest leaf area, productivity, and biomass were strongly related to mean annual water availability. Across the hydroclimatic gradient, trees exhibited interspecific variation in traits that balanced maintaining hydraulic function against the need to compete for light.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6617-6635, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6617-2015, 2015
Spatial distribution and sources of organic carbon in the surface sediment of Bosten Lake, China
Summary: Bosten Lake is the largest inland freshwater lake in China, which has been impacted by land use changes, with implications for carbon burial. Our study showed a large spatial variability in total organic carbon (TOC) (1.8–4.4%); 54–90% of TOC was from autochthonous sources. Higher TOC content was found in the east and central-north sections and near the mouth of the Kaidu River, which was attributable to allochthonous, autochthonous plus allochthonous, and autochthonous sources, respectively.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6605-6615, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6605-2015, 2015
Quantifying regional, time-varying effects of cropland and pasture on vegetation fire
Summary: People worldwide use fire to manage agriculture, but often also suppress fire in the landscape surrounding their fields. Here, we estimate the net result of these effects of cropland and pasture on fire at a regional, monthly level. Pasture is shown, for the first time, to contribute strongly to global patterns of burning. Our results could be used to improve representations of burning in global vegetation and climate models, improving our understanding of how people affect the Earth system.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6591-6604, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6591-2015, 2015
Constraints on the applicability of the organic temperature proxies UK'37, TEX86 and LDI in the subpolar region around Iceland
Summary: This research reports a test of the applicability of three organic-derived temperature proxies (UK'37, TEX86 and LDI) at high latitudes around Iceland. A range of samples including suspended particular material (SPM), trapped descending particles and surface sediments were collected to test the different proxies in the water column and the sediment.The combination of three independent SST organic proxies provided important information about seasonality and differences in habitat depth.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6573-6590, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6573-2015, 2015
Edaphic, structural and physiological contrasts across Amazon Basin forest–savanna ecotones suggest a role for potassium as a key modulator of tropical woody vegetation structure and function
Summary: Across tropical South America, forest soils are typically of a higher cation status than their savanna equivalents with soil exchangeable potassium a key soil nutrient differentiating these two vegetation types. Differences in soil water storage capacity are also important – interacting with both potassium availability and precipitation regimes in a relatively complex manner.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6529-6571, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6529-2015, 2015
Production regime and associated N cycling in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island, Southern Ocean
Summary: Primary production, NO3- and NH4+ uptake, and nitrification rates were measured during the KEOPS 2 cruise (austral spring 2011) in the Kerguelen Plateau area. Natural iron fertilization stimulated primary production which is much higher in the fertilized areas compared to the HNLC site. We report high rates of nitrification in the mixed layer below the euphotic zone. We conclude that high productivity in deep mixing system stimulates the N cycle by increasing both assimilation and regeneration.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6515-6528, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6515-2015, 2015
Optimizing the impact of temperature on bio-hydrogen production from food waste and its derivatives under no pH control using statistical modelling
Summary: The study focuses on co-digestion of food waste and its derivatives i.e. noodle waste and rice waste with sludge in order to produce bio-hydrogen. The pH was set at 7 initially and was not controlled throughout the incubation in order to make the process simple. Noodle waste produced maxim bio-hydrogen production as compared to food waste and rice waste. The increase in temperature increased the bio-hydrogen production for food waste but caused negative impact on noodle and rice wastes.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6503-6514, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6503-2015, 2015
Phytoplankton calcification as an effective mechanism to alleviate cellular calcium poisoning
Summary: The White Cliffs of Dover date back to the Cretaceous and are made up of microscopic chalky shells which were produced mainly by marine phytoplankton (coccolithophores). This is iconic proof for their success at times of relatively high seawater calcium concentrations and, as shown here, to be linked to their ability to precipitate calcium as chalk. The invention of calcification can thus be considered an evolutionary milestone allowing coccolithophores to thrive at times when others struggled.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6493-6501, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6493-2015, 2015
Quantifying importance and scaling effects of atmospheric deposition of inorganic fixed nitrogen for the eutrophic Black Sea
Summary: Atmospheric deposition of inorganic fixed nitrogen has been evaluated and quantified for the Black Sea at different spatial and temporal scales. The effect of this deposition has appeared comparable to riverine load of nutrients. This atmospheric deposition can dramatically increase primary production with the major effects for off-shore regions. It does support the currently highly eutrophic state of the Black Sea and prevents rehabilitation of this ecosystem.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6479-6491, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6479-2015, 2015
Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model
Biogeosciences, 12, 6463-6477, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6463-2015, 2015
Reviews and syntheses: the first records of deep-sea fauna – a correction and discussion
Summary: The recovery of a basket star in 1818 from deep waters of Baffin Bay is often cited as the first organism that was brought up from the deep sea. Yet recoveries of stalked crinoids from the Caribbean and catches of several bathyal fishes occurred decades earlier. However, these accidental catches remained largely neglected during the 19th and 20th century because the bathyal nature of these animals was not recognized, and because they were not tied to a known water depth.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6453-6462, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6453-2015, 2015
Speciation and distribution of P associated with Fe and Al oxides in aggregate-sized fraction of an arable soil
Summary: Overall P content increased with decreasing size of soil aggregate-sized fractions. The relative distribution and speciation of varying P forms were independent of particle size. The majority of alkaline extractable P was in the amorphous Fe/Al oxide fraction, most of which was orthophosphate. Significant amounts of monoester P were also bound to these oxides. Residual P contained similar amounts of P occluded in amorphous and crystalline Fe oxides. This P may be released by FeO dissolution.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6443-6452, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6443-2015, 2015
Reviews and syntheses: Calculating the global contribution of coralline algae to total carbon burial
Summary: The ongoing increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is changing the environment. Reduction of CO2 to a sustainable level is required to avoid further change. In this manuscript, the carbon storage potential of coralline algae (CA) and their deposits is accessed. We show that CA represent an as yet unquantified significant carbon repository, storing similar amounts of carbon to seagrasses and mangroves. Critically, stored carbon will likely be stable at geological timescale.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6429-6441, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6429-2015, 2015
Global soil nitrous oxide emissions in a dynamic carbon-nitrogen model
Summary: The prediction of the greenhouse gas N2O from natural soils globally is sensitive to the representation of soil water. Factors that regulate nitrogen retention and nitrogen limitation, including fire and biological nitrogen fixation are further influencing the N2O gas production. Responses to warming and CO2 increase are strongly controlled by tropical soils. Therefore extrapolation of mostly extra-tropical field studies the globe warrants caution.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6405-6427, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6405-2015, 2015
C : N : P stoichiometry at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study station in the North Atlantic Ocean
Summary: Stoichiometry of macronutrients in the subtropical ocean is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles are coupled. We observed that elemental stoichiometry was much higher in the dissolved organic-matter pools than in the particulate organic matter pools. In addition ratios vary with depth due to changes in growth rates of specific phytoplankton groups, namely cyanobacteria. These data will improve biogeochemical models by placing observational constraints on these ratios.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6389-6403, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6389-2015, 2015
Halocarbon emissions and sources in the equatorial Atlantic Cold Tongue
Summary: This manuscript covers the first measurements of CHBr3, CH2Br2 and CH3I from the equatorial Atlantic during the Cold Tongue season, identifying this region and season as a source for these compounds. For the first time, we calculated diapycnal fluxes, and showed that the fluxes from below the mixed layer to the surface are not sufficient to balance the mixed layer budget. Hence, we conclude that mixed layer production has to take place despite a pronounced sub-mixed-layer-maximum.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6369-6387, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6369-2015, 2015
Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photochemical reflectance index improve remote-sensing gross primary production estimates under varying nutrient availability in a typical Mediterranean savanna ecosystem
Summary: Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photochemical reflectance index revealed controls of climate and nutrient availability on photosynthesis (gross primary production, GPP). Meteo-driven models (MMs) were unable to describe nutrient-induced effects on GPP. Important implications can be derived from these results, and uncertainties in the prediction of global GPP still remain when MMs do not account for plant nutrient availability.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6351-6367, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6351-2015, 2015
Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest
Summary: Fungi in the atmosphere can affect precipitation by nucleating the formation of clouds and ice. This process is important over the Amazon rainforest where precipitation is limited by the types and amount of airborne particles. We found that the total and metabolically active fungi communities were dominated by different taxonomic groups, and the active community unexpectedly contained many lichen fungi, which are effective at nucleating ice.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6337-6349, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6337-2015, 2015
Natural variability in the surface ocean carbonate ion concentration
Summary: We investigate variability in surface ocean carbonate chemistry using output from a 1000-year control simulation of an Earth System Model. We find that the detection timescale for trends is strongly influenced by the variability. As the scientific community seeks to detect the anthropogenic influence on ocean carbonate chemistry, these results will aid the interpretation of trends calculated from spatially and temporally sparse observations.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6321-6335, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6321-2015, 2015
Permafrost coverage, watershed area and season control of dissolved carbon and major elements in western Siberian rivers
Summary: The governing parameter of DOC and major element concentrations and fluxes in western Siberia is latitude. High fluxes in the continuous permafrost zone of frozen peat bogs stem from the fact that the underlining mineral layer is not reactive, protected by the permafrost so that the major part of the active layer is located within the organic (peat) matrix and not the mineral matrix. Possible changes in export fluxes of DOC and major river water components under permafrost thaw are quantified.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6301-6320, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6301-2015, 2015
Microbial carbon recycling: an underestimated process controlling soil carbon dynamics – Part 2: A C3-C4 vegetation change field labelling experiment
Biogeosciences, 12, 6291-6299, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6291-2015, 2015
Impacts of prescribed burning on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a suburban native forest of south-eastern Queensland, Australia
Biogeosciences, 12, 6279-6290, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6279-2015, 2015
Model estimates of climate controls on pan-Arctic wetland methane emissions
Summary: We used a process-based model to investigate the sensitivities of pan-Arctic wetland methane emissions to climate factors, as a function of climate. Over the period 1960-2006, temperature was the dominant driver of trends in emissions. Wetlands north of 60N were temperature-limited, and wetlands south of 60N latitude were water-limited. Projected future warming will cause water-limited wetlands to expand northward over the next century, lessening the role of temperature in the future.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6259-6277, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6259-2015, 2015
Radiocarbon isotopic evidence for assimilation of atmospheric CO2 by the seagrass Zostera marina
Summary: Our empirical study demonstrates the quantitative evidence of assimilating atmospheric modern CO2 by the seagrass Zostera marina, by analyzing the radiocarbon isotope concentrations (Δ14C) of both the seagrass and two carbon sources in a brackish lagoon. CO2 exchange between the air and water would occur at the very thin film of water over the air-exposed seagrass leaves. Our finding offers better understanding of the role of seagrass meadows in global coastal carbon dynamics.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6251-6258, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6251-2015, 2015
Water quality, isoscapes and stoichioscapes of seagrasses indicate general P limitation and unique N cycling in shallow water benthos of Bermuda
Summary: The landscape-scale spatial pattern in the elemental and isotopic composition of organisms offers valuable information about the ecological processes operating across the landscape. When used in parallel, spatial patterns in stable isotopic composition (called isoscapes) and elemental stoichiometry (we propose the term "stoichioscapes") of seagrasses in Bermuda indicate nutrient sources and unique nitrogen cycling on this isolated oceanic platform.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6235-6249, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6235-2015, 2015
Two-dimensional distribution of living benthic foraminifera in anoxic sediment layers of an estuarine mudflat (Loire estuary, France)
Summary: We present a new rapid and accurate protocol to simultaneously sample, in two dimensions, benthic living foraminifera at the centimetre scale and dissolved iron and phosphorus at the submillimetre scale. It was applied to a highly bioturbated site in a mudflat of the Loire estuary and showed that, in the suboxic zone, foraminifera are less affected by active burrows (i.e. reoxygenated) than by iron reactive hotspots. This unexpected result calls for a generalization of this new protocol.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6219-6234, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6219-2015, 2015
Influence of wood density in tree-ring-based annual productivity assessments and its errors in Norway spruce
Summary: Annual variations in wood density partially compensated ring-width variations in Picea abies. If neglected, annual biomass increment was underestimated by up to 15%. The relative prediction interval of plot-level annual biomass increment ranged from 20 to 40%. The uncertainty related to the allometric models parameters was only about 10%. The errors related to variations in wood density were much larger, the biggest component being the variability between trees.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6205-6217, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6205-2015, 2015
Effect of elevated CO2 on organic matter pools and fluxes in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community
Biogeosciences, 12, 6181-6203, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6181-2015, 2015
Sediment properties and CO2 efflux from intact and cleared temperate mangrove forests
Summary: This is the first study investigating the effect of clearing on sediment CO2 efflux in temperate Avicennia marina forests. We found that rates of sediment CO2 efflux from cleared and intact temperate Avicennia marina forests are comparable to rates observed in other temperate and tropical forests. Our results show that greater consideration should be made regarding the rate of carbon released from mangrove forest following clearance and the relative contribution to global carbon emissions.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6169-6180, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6169-2015, 2015
Wind-driven interannual variability of sea ice algal production in the western Arctic Chukchi Borderland
Summary: The current paper presented findings on seasonal and interannual variability of sea ice algal production and biomass over the western Arctic Chukchi Boderland using a pan-Arctic sea ice-ocean modeling approach. In particular, the relationship with wind pattern was focused on. Coupling of physical and biogeochemical analyses provided originality of this study.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6147-6168, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6147-2015, 2015
A strong CO2 sink enhanced by eutrophication in a tropical coastal embayment (Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
Summary: Air-water CO2 fluxes were monitored in Guanabara Bay (Brazil), a tropical eutrophic coastal embayment. In contrast to other estuaries worldwide, Guanabara Bay behaves as an annual CO2 sink (-9.6 to -18.3 molC m2 yr) due to the concomitant effects of strong radiation, thermal stratification, and high availability of nutrients, which promotes huge phytoplankton development and autotrophy. Our results show that CO2 budget assertions still lack information on tropical marine-dominated estuaries.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6125-6146, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6125-2015, 2015
EUROSPEC: at the interface between remote-sensing and ecosystem CO2 flux measurements in Europe
Biogeosciences, 12, 6103-6124, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6103-2015, 2015
Air–water fluxes and sources of carbon dioxide in the Delaware Estuary: spatial and seasonal variability
Summary: In this paper, we report the ﬁrst seasonal distribution of pCO2 and air–water CO2 ﬂux in the Delaware Estuary. We further assess the temperature and biological effects on pCO2 distributions as well as the overall contribution of internal versus riverine sources on CO2 inputs to the estuarine system. Finally, we present a summarized pCO2 distribution over the study area and provide a conceptual model to illustrate the control mechanisms on surface water CO2 dynamics in the Delaware Estuary.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6085-6101, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6085-2015, 2015
Soil microbial nutrient constraints along a tropical forest elevation gradient: a belowground test of a biogeochemical paradigm
Summary: We measured indices of soil microbial nutrient status in lowland, sub-montane and montane tropical forests along a natural gradient spanning 3400 m in elevation in the Peruvian Andes. We show that soil microorganisms shift investment in nutrient acquisition from P to N between lowland and montane tropical forests, suggesting that different nutrients regulate soil microbial metabolism and the soil carbon balance in these ecosystems.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6071-6083, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6071-2015, 2015
Human land uses enhance sediment denitrification and N2O production in Yangtze lakes primarily by influencing lake water quality
Biogeosciences, 12, 6059-6070, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6059-2015, 2015
Interdecadal changes in intensity of the oxygen minimum zone off Concepción, Chile (~ 36° S), over the last century
Biogeosciences, 12, 6045-6058, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6045-2015, 2015
Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss, and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data
Biogeosciences, 12, 6033-6043, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6033-2015, 2015
Quantifying the influence of CO2 seasonality on future aragonite undersaturation onset
Summary: Our results show that accounting for oceanic CO2 seasonality is crucial to projecting the future onset of critical ocean acidification levels (i.e. aragonite undersaturation). In particular, seasonality will bring forward the initial onset of month-long undersaturation by a global average of 17 years. Importantly, widespread undersaturation is projected to occur once atmospheric CO2 reaches 496ppm in the North Pacific and 511ppm in the Southern Ocean, independent of emissions scenario.
Biogeosciences, 12, 6017-6031, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6017-2015, 2015
Interpreting canopy development and physiology using a European phenology camera network at flux sites
Summary: The timing of plant development stages and their response to climate and management were investigated using a network of digital cameras installed across different European ecosystems. Using the relative red, green and blue content of images we showed that the green signal could be used to estimate the length of the growing season in broadleaf forests. We also developed a model that predicted the seasonal variations of camera RGB signals and how they relate to leaf pigment content and area well.
Biogeosciences, 12, 5995-6015, doi:10.5194/bg-12-5995-2015, 2015
Interdependencies between temperature and moisture sensitivities of CO2 emissions in European land ecosystems
Summary: Our experiments showed that, in cold areas (e.g. northern latitudes or mountain areas), warming as well as rain events will have a larger impact on CO2 emissions. Increased moisture in dry areas or drying of wet areas will largely promote CO2 emissions. Irrigation of arable lands might have a higher impact on CO2 emissions in warmer regions in the south of Europe than in the north.
Biogeosciences, 12, 5981-5993, doi:10.5194/bg-12-5981-2015, 2015
Lateral carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from a tropical peat-draining river
Summary: Tropical peatlands are an important source of organic carbon to rivers. However, due to the remoteness of these ecosystems, data are scarce. We present the first combined assessment of both lateral organic carbon fluxes and CO2 emissions from an undisturbed tropical peat-draining river. Compared to the organic carbon concentrations, CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere were actually relatively moderate, which we attributed to the short water residence time.
Biogeosciences, 12, 5967-5979, doi:10.5194/bg-12-5967-2015, 2015
Thermal processes of thermokarst lakes in the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia – observations and modeling (Lena River Delta, Siberia)
Summary: We show that lakes in northern Siberia are very efficient with respect to energy absorption and mixing using measurements as well as numerical modeling. We show that (i) the lakes receive substantial energy for warming from net short-wave radiation; (ii) convective mixing occurs beneath the ice cover, follow beneath the ice cover, following ice break-up, summer, and fall (iii) modeling suggests that the annual mean net heat flux across the bottom sediment boundary is approximately zero.
Biogeosciences, 12, 5941-5965, doi:10.5194/bg-12-5941-2015, 2015
Microbial carbon recycling – an underestimated process controlling soil carbon dynamics – Part 1: A long-term laboratory incubation experiment
Biogeosciences, 12, 5929-5940, doi:10.5194/bg-12-5929-2015, 2015