1ITC International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observations, Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA, Enschede, The Netherlands
2Department of Soil Science, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW, UK
Received: 20 May 2009 – Discussion started: 23 Jun 2009
Abstract. This paper presents the model SCOPE (Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes), which is a vertical (1-D) integrated radiative transfer and energy balance model. The model links visible to thermal infrared radiance spectra (0.4 to 50 μm) as observed above the canopy to the fluxes of water, heat and carbon dioxide, as a function of vegetation structure, and the vertical profiles of temperature. Output of the model is the spectrum of outgoing radiation in the viewing direction and the turbulent heat fluxes, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence. A special routine is dedicated to the calculation of photosynthesis rate and chlorophyll fluorescence at the leaf level as a function of net radiation and leaf temperature. The fluorescence contributions from individual leaves are integrated over the canopy layer to calculate top-of-canopy fluorescence. The calculation of radiative transfer and the energy balance is fully integrated, allowing for feedback between leaf temperatures, leaf chlorophyll fluorescence and radiative fluxes. Leaf temperatures are calculated on the basis of energy balance closure. Model simulations were evaluated against observations reported in the literature and against data collected during field campaigns. These evaluations showed that SCOPE is able to reproduce realistic radiance spectra, directional radiance and energy balance fluxes. The model may be applied for the design of algorithms for the retrieval of evapotranspiration from optical and thermal earth observation data, for validation of existing methods to monitor vegetation functioning, to help interpret canopy fluorescence measurements, and to study the relationships between synoptic observations with diurnally integrated quantities. The model has been implemented in Matlab and has a modular design, thus allowing for great flexibility and scalability.
Revised: 08 Nov 2009 – Accepted: 25 Nov 2009 – Published: 18 Dec 2009
van der Tol, C., Verhoef, W., Timmermans, J., Verhoef, A., and Su, Z.: An integrated model of soil-canopy spectral radiances, photosynthesis, fluorescence, temperature and energy balance, Biogeosciences, 6, 3109-3129, doi:10.5194/bg-6-3109-2009, 2009.