The coastal upwelling systems, e.g. off Peru and Mauritania,
are key regions for the emissions of climate relevant trace gases
from the ocean into the atmosphere. Here, gases and nutrients are
transported into the ocean mixed layer from below. The upwelling velocities,
however, are too small to be measured directly.
We use the enhancement of helium-3 in upwelled
waters to quantify the vertical velocity,
which varies between 1.0 and 2.5 metres per day in the coastal regions.