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Biogeosciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 15, issue 19 | Copyright
Biogeosciences, 15, 5779-5800, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 02 Oct 2018

Research article | 02 Oct 2018

A global spatially contiguous solar-induced fluorescence (CSIF) dataset using neural networks

Yao Zhang1, Joanna Joiner2, Seyed Hamed Alemohammad3, Sha Zhou1, and Pierre Gentine1,4 Yao Zhang et al.
  • 1Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
  • 2NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
  • 3Radiant Earth, Washington, DC 20005, USA
  • 4Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA

Abstract. Satellite-retrieved solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has shown great potential to monitor the photosynthetic activity of terrestrial ecosystems. However, several issues, including low spatial and temporal resolution of the gridded datasets and high uncertainty of the individual retrievals, limit the applications of SIF. In addition, inconsistency in measurement footprints also hinders the direct comparison between gross primary production (GPP) from eddy covariance (EC) flux towers and satellite-retrieved SIF. In this study, by training a neural network (NN) with surface reflectance from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and SIF from Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), we generated two global spatially contiguous SIF (CSIF) datasets at moderate spatiotemporal (0.05° 4-day) resolutions during the MODIS era, one for clear-sky conditions (2000–2017) and the other one in all-sky conditions (2000–2016). The clear-sky instantaneous CSIF (CSIFclear-inst) shows high accuracy against the clear-sky OCO-2 SIF and little bias across biome types. The all-sky daily average CSIF (CSIFall-daily) dataset exhibits strong spatial, seasonal and interannual dynamics that are consistent with daily SIF from OCO-2 and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2). An increasing trend (0.39%) of annual average CSIFall-daily is also found, confirming the greening of Earth in most regions. Since the difference between satellite-observed SIF and CSIF is mostly caused by the environmental down-regulation on SIFyield, the ratio between OCO-2 SIF and CSIFclear-inst can be an effective indicator of drought stress that is more sensitive than the normalized difference vegetation index and enhanced vegetation index. By comparing CSIFall-daily with GPP estimates from 40 EC flux towers across the globe, we find a large cross-site variation (c.v.  =  0.36) of the GPP–SIF relationship with the highest regression slopes for evergreen needleleaf forest. However, the cross-biome variation is relatively limited (c.v. = 0.15). These two contiguous SIF datasets and the derived GPP–SIF relationship enable a better understanding of the spatial and temporal variations of the GPP across biomes and climate.

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Short summary
Using satellite reflectance measurements and a machine learning algorithm, we generated a new solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) dataset that is closely linked to plant photosynthesis. This new dataset has higher spatial and temporal resolutions, and lower uncertainty compared to the existing satellite retrievals. We also demonstrated its application in monitoring drought and improving the understanding of the SIF–photosynthesis relationship.
Using satellite reflectance measurements and a machine learning algorithm, we generated a new...