Journal cover Journal topic
Biogeosciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic
Volume 14, issue 8
Biogeosciences, 14, 2133–2149, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2133-2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Biogeosciences, 14, 2133–2149, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2133-2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 26 Apr 2017

Research article | 26 Apr 2017

The oxic degradation of sedimentary organic matter 1400 Ma constrains atmospheric oxygen levels

Shuichang Zhang1, Xiaomei Wang1, Huajian Wang1, Emma U. Hammarlund2, Jin Su1, Yu Wang1, and Donald E. Canfield2 Shuichang Zhang et al.
  • 1Key Laboratory of Petroleum Geochemistry, Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing 100083, China
  • 2Villum Investigator, Department of Biology and NordCEE, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark

Abstract. We studied sediments from the ca. 1400 million-year-old Xiamaling Formation from the North China block. The upper unit of this formation (unit 1) deposited mostly below storm wave base and contains alternating black and green-gray shales with very distinct geochemical characteristics. The black shales are enriched in redox-sensitive trace metals, have high concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), high hydrogen index (HI) and iron speciation indicating deposition under anoxic conditions. In contrast, the green-gray shales show no trace metal enrichments, have low TOC, low HI and iron speciation consistent with an oxygenated depositional setting. Altogether, unit 1 displays alternations between oxic and anoxic depositional environments, driving differences in carbon preservation consistent with observations from the modern ocean. We combined our TOC and HI results to calculate the differences in carbon mineralization and carbon preservation by comparing the oxygenated and anoxic depositional environments. Through comparisons of these results with modern sedimentary environments, and by use of a simple diagenetic model, we conclude that the enhanced carbon mineralization under oxygenated conditions in unit 1 of the Xiamaling Formation required a minimum of 4 to 8 % of present-day atmospheric levels (PAL) of oxygen. These oxygen levels are higher than estimates based on chromium isotopes and reinforce the idea that the environment contained enough oxygen for animals long before their evolution.

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