1School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, UK
2Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK
*now at: Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Savannah, Georgia
**now at: National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, Wellington, New Zealand
Received: 13 Sep 2010 – Discussion started: 13 Oct 2010
Abstract. Carbon monoxide (CO) apparent quantum yields (AQYs) are reported for a suite of riverine, estuarine and sea water samples, spanning a range of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) sources, diagenetic histories, and concentrations (absorption coefficients). CO AQYs were highest for high CDOM riverine samples and almost an order of magnitude lower for low CDOM coastal seawater samples. CO AQYs were between 47 and 80% lower at the mouth of the estuary than at its head. Whereas, a conservative mixing model predicted only 8 to 14% decreases in CO AQYs between the head and mouth of the estuary, indicating that a highly photoreactive pool of terrestrial CDOM is lost during estuarine transit. The CDOM absorption coefficient (a) at 412 nm was identified as a good proxy for CO AQYs (linear regression r2 > 0.8; n = 12) at all CO AQY wavelengths studied (285, 295, 305, 325, 345, 365, and 423 nm) and across environments (high CDOM river, low CDOM river, estuary and coastal sea). These regressions are presented as empirical proxies suitable for the remote sensing of CO AQYs in natural waters, including open ocean water, and were used to estimate CO AQY spectra and CO photoproduction in the Tyne estuary based upon annually averaged estuarine CDOM absorption data. A minimum estimate of annual CO production was determined assuming that only light absorbed by CDOM leads to the formation of CO and a maximum limit was estimated assuming that all light entering the water column is absorbed by CO producing photoreactants (i.e. that particles are also photoreactive). In this way, annual CO photoproduction in the Tyne was estimated to be between 0.99 and 3.57 metric tons of carbon per year, or 0.004 to 0.014% of riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) inputs to the estuary. Extrapolation of CO photoproduction rates to estimate total DOC photomineralisation indicate that less than 1% of DOC inputs are removed via photochemical processes during transit through the Tyne estuary.
Revised: 28 Feb 2011 – Accepted: 02 Mar 2011 – Published: 18 Mar 2011
Stubbins, A., Law, C. S., Uher, G., and Upstill-Goddard, R. C.: Carbon monoxide apparent quantum yields and photoproduction in the Tyne estuary, Biogeosciences, 8, 703-713, doi:10.5194/bg-8-703-2011, 2011.