Dynamics of ammonia exchange with cut grassland: strategy and implementation of the GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment M. A. Sutton1, E. Nemitz1, M. R. Theobald1, C. Milford1,*, J. R. Dorsey2, M. W. Gallagher2, A. Hensen3, P. A. C. Jongejan3, J. W. Erisman3, M. Mattsson4,**, J. K. Schjoerring4, P. Cellier5, B. Loubet5, R. Roche5, A. Neftel6, B. Hermann6, S. K. Jones1,6, B. E. Lehman***,†, L. Horvath7, T. Weidinger8, K. Rajkai9, J. Burkhardt10, F. J. Löpmeier11, and U. Daemmgen12 1Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Edinburgh Research Station, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB, UK 2University of Manchester (UoM), Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK 3Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Postbus 1, 1755 ZG Petten, The Netherlands 4Plant and Soil Science Laboratory, University of Copenhagen (UoC), Faculty of Life Sciences, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 871 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark 5Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, 78850, France 6Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station (formerly: FAL-CH; now: ART), Zürich-Reckenholz, 8046 Zürich, Switzerland 7Hungarian Meteorological Service (HMS), P.O. Box 39 1675 Budapest, Hungary (in association with the Forest Research Institute (FRI) of Hungary), Hungay 8Eötvös Loránd University (ELU), Dept. Meteorology, 1117 Budapest, Hungary 9Research Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of Hungary (RISSAC), Herman Ottó út 15, 1022 Budapest, Hungary 10University of Bonn, Institute for Crop Science and Resource Conservation, INRES-PE, Karlrobert-Kreiten-Str. 13, 53115 Bonn, Germany 11Agrometeorological Research Station of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DVD), Bundesallee 50; 38116 Braunschweig, Germany 12Institut fur Agrarokologie, Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Landwirtschaft (FAL), (now: the von Thunen Institute), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany *now at: Institute of Earth Sciences "Jaume Almera", CSIC, Lluis Solé i Sabarís, 08028, Barcelona, Spain **now at: Section for Economy & Technology, Halmstad University, 30118 Sweden ***formerly at: University of Bern, Hochschulstr. 4, 3012 Bern, Switzerland †deceased
Abstract. A major international experiment on ammonia (NH3)
biosphere-atmosphere exchange was conducted over intensively managed
grassland at Braunschweig, Germany. The experimental strategy was developed
to allow an integrated analysis of different features of NH3 exchange
including: a) quantification of nearby emissions and advection effects, b)
estimation of net NH3 fluxes with the canopy by a range of
micrometeorological measurements, c) analysis of the sources and sinks of
NH3 within the plant canopy, including soils and bioassay measurements,
d) comparison of the effects of grassland management options on NH3
fluxes and e) assessment of the interactions of NH3 fluxes with aerosol
exchange processes. Additional technical objectives included the
inter-comparison of different estimates of sensible and latent heat fluxes,
as well as continuous-gradient and Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) systems
for NH3 fluxes.
The prior analysis established the spatial and temporal design of the
experiment, allowing significant synergy between these objectives. The
measurements were made at 7 measurement locations, thereby quantifying
horizontal and vertical profiles, and covered three phases: a) tall grass
canopy prior to cutting (7 days), b) short grass after cutting (7 days) and
c) re-growing sward following fertilization with ammonium nitrate (10 days).
The sequential management treatments allowed comparison of sources-sinks,
advection and aerosol interactions under a wide range of NH3 fluxes.
This paper describes the experimental strategy and reports the grassland
management history, soils, environmental conditions and air chemistry during
the experiment, finally summarizing how the results are coordinated in the
accompanying series of papers.
Citation: Sutton, M. A., Nemitz, E., Theobald, M. R., Milford, C., Dorsey, J. R., Gallagher, M. W., Hensen, A., Jongejan, P. A. C., Erisman, J. W., Mattsson, M., Schjoerring, J. K., Cellier, P., Loubet, B., Roche, R., Neftel, A., Hermann, B., Jones, S. K., Lehman, B. E., Horvath, L., Weidinger, T., Rajkai, K., Burkhardt, J., Löpmeier, F. J., and Daemmgen, U.: Dynamics of ammonia exchange with cut grassland: strategy and implementation of the GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment, Biogeosciences, 6, 309-331, doi:10.5194/bg-6-309-2009, 2009.