We present clumped isotope data in air CO2
over land and ocean in Taiwan and its vicinity. CO2
over ocean is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the surface sea water and deviated significantly in urban and suburban areas due contribution from combustion emission. Photosynthetic activity deviates residual CO2
from thermodynamic equilibrium but respiration does not. Deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium by various interactions in different environments are presented.