1Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA
2Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
3Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, Brazil
4School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Cairns, Qld, Australia
5Los Alamos National Laboratory, Biosciences Division, Los Alamos, NM, USA
6Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
7School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
8Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, USA
Received: 16 Mar 2015 – Discussion started: 18 May 2015
Abstract. Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predictions generated by a mass-balance model. We found that the total community was primarily comprised of fungi from the phylum Basidiomycota. In contrast, the active community was primarily composed of members of the phylum Ascomycota and included a high relative abundance of lichen fungi, which were not detected in the total community. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in the total and active communities was consistent with our model predictions, suggesting that this result was driven by the relative size and number of spores produced by these groups. When compared to other environments, fungal communities in the atmosphere were most similar to communities found in tropical soils and leaf surfaces. Our results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the composition of the total and active fungal communities in the atmosphere, and that lichen fungi, which have been shown to be efficient ice nucleators, may be abundant members of active atmospheric fungal communities over the forest canopy.
Revised: 12 Oct 2015 – Accepted: 17 Oct 2015 – Published: 06 Nov 2015
Womack, A. M., Artaxo, P. E., Ishida, F. Y., Mueller, R. C., Saleska, S. R., Wiedemann, K. T., Bohannan, B. J. M., and Green, J. L.: Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest, Biogeosciences, 12, 6337-6349, doi:10.5194/bg-12-6337-2015, 2015.